The California Missions On-Line Project

 

 

A Project

Presented to the

Faculty of

California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

 

 

 

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Arts

In

Education

 

 

by

Rob Garretson

1998

 

http://www.cuca.k12.ca.us/lessons/missions/contents/index.html

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Background

Purpose of Study

Assumptions

Delimitations

Limitations

Definition of Terms

Chapter 2 - Review of the Literature

The State of California Framework/Standards

United States Department of Education

The California Missions

The Individual California Missions

San Diego de Alcala

San Luis Rey de Francia

San Juan Capistrano

San Gabriel Arcangel

San Fernando Rey de Espana

San Buenaventura

Santa Barbara

Santa Ines

La Purisima Conception

San Luis Obispo de Tolosa

San Miguel Arcangel

San Antonio de Padua

Nuestra Senora de la Soledad

San Carlos de Borromeo de Carmelo

San Juan Bautista

Santa Cruz

Santa Clara

San Jose de Guadalupe

San Francisco de Asis

San Rafael Arcangel

San Francisco Solano

Technology and Information Related to this Project

Summary

Chapter 3 - Methodology

Chapter 4 - Summary, Conclusions, Recommendations

Bibliography

Back to the top


This project is dedicated to the memory of the California Natives who lived, worked, and died at these California Missions. Without these spiritual and giving people, the Mission Chain would not have been built and ultimately grown into the major urban areas of the State of California. It is a tragedy that the well intentioned padres brought with them soldiers, sickness and disease. Those infirmities, combined with the assimilation of the California Indians into the European culture, virtually eliminated an entire race of human beings.


Chapter One

 

BACKGROUND

 

Technology is a growth area for the Cucamonga School District. In the past few years, the district has spent nearly one million dollars in hardware purchases alone. This includes computers, printers, servers and wiring for a LAN, WAN and the Internet. The staff is not well trained in the area of technology and many are apprehensive about using these new tools. Teachers are willing to use computers in the delivery of multimedia lessons but are not sure how to create projects. They do not have the experience, time or expertise to create interactive multimedia lessons.

There is a lack of multimedia and Internet programs and resources designed around the California Missions available for teacher and student use in the classroom. This project was created to address both of these problems. This project created multimedia lessons embedded in Web pages to be viewed on the Internet by teachers and students throughout California.

The State of California's History - Social Science Framework "encourages teachers to use a wide variety of methods in teaching history - social science" (CDE CIA Division, 1990, p. 12). These methods include using computers, simulations and student projects. The Framework supports "the use of technology to supplement reading and classroom activities and to enrich the teaching of history and social sciences" (p. 7).

The framework also states that "computer software, and newly emerging forms of educational technology can provide invaluable resources for the teaching of history, geography, economics, and the other disciplines" (History - Social Science Curriculum Framework and Criteria Committee, 1988, p. 7). "Information and instructional technologies for a K - 12 teacher might include a computer, laser videodisc player, printer, telephone, modem, VCR, CD Rom player, camcorder, tape recorder, and large television" (Commission, 1998, p. 12).

Multimedia lessons can enhance students' learning and help to focus attention on the material being presented. Teachers need to deliver lessons using a variety of methods including multimedia. It is unrealistic to assume that teachers will learn to create this material on their own. Teachers have and will always need to share resources and find alternative methods to incorporate into their teaching strategies. "Effective collaboration, sharing of resources, and delivery will be necessary to ensure the incorporation of technology into curriculum and instruction" (Commission, 1998, p. 16). The Internet is one vehicle to share resources and collaborate with other educators. As the Internet is becoming available in all classrooms throughout the country, it seems to be an appropriate place to disseminate information which can be easily retrieved via a computer with a network connection.

Back to the top


Purpose of Study

 

The purpose of this project was to create a curricular teaching unit for fourth grade students in the State of California learning about the California Mission Chain as required in the California State History - Social Science Frameworks. This project used multimedia technology as a means for presenting the individual lessons to students. The activities, lesson plans, materials and multimedia presentations are available to download or run actively from the Internet.

The goal of this project was to create and produce multimedia lessons for fourth grade students and teachers in California with all of the behavioral objectives needed for teaching lessons embedded in the presentations. One of the main objectives was to prepare and present streaming video embedded into Web pages to be viewed on the Internet. Teachers will be able to adapt as necessary, but will not need to create the backbone of the multimedia presentations. The entire project was based on the California Framework for History - Social Science.

Programs and software used in creating this project included; HyperStudio, Adobe Photoshop, Claris Home Page, SoundEdit 16, BBEdit, ClarisWorks, Power Point, Netscape, Internet Explorer, VivoActive VideoNow, Adobe Premier, GIF Converter, JPEG Viewer, Movie Cleaner, and Apple's QuickTime Movie Player 3.0. The hardware used in creating this project included; an Apple Power Macintosh 6500/250 computer, an Umax Astra 610S scanner, a 35mm camera, a camcorder, and an HP Deskjet printer.

The multimedia lessons were tested on selected elementary teachers in California with special emphasis on the fourth grade. The lessons were field tested both from a computer and on the Internet. Multimedia presentations can and will need adjustments, therefore, the use of actual teachers, without much computer experience, helped to make this a well written and workable project that is both valid in its curriculum and reliable in its technology.

Back to the top


Assumptions

 

For the purpose of this project the following assumptions were made:

 

1) All new teachers in the State of California are required to have a course in basic computer skills in order to obtain a clear teaching credential. Therefore, it is assumed that teachers have basic computer knowledge, such as use of the keyboard and mouse.

2) As the State and Federal Governments are asserting that all classrooms have Internet access, it is assumed that all teachers have a basic understanding of the Internet.

3) Teachers have access to the Internet.

4) Teachers maintain an electronic mail account.

5) Classroom Teachers know how to use web browsers such as Netscape Navigator, Netscape Communicator, and Microsoft's Internet Explorer.

6) Teachers follow the State Frameworks for History - Social Science instruction.

7) Curricular units are practical for teachers' use.

8) Teachers plan their lessons and units of study in periods of time over several weeks.

9) This project will be used by fourth grade teachers in California .

10) Students reading this material can read independently at a third grade level.

11) Teachers will use this project as a supplement to their other lesson plans, according to the State of California History - Social Science Framework.

12) Students have a working knowledge of the English language.

Back to the top


Delimitations

 

The parameters of this study are:

 

1) This project will cover the history of the California Mission Chain and its' importance to the establishment of permanent settlements in the state.

2) The lessons created in this project will be available for both Macintosh and Windows computers.

3) The lessons will be accessible through all of the current browsers.

4) The lessons developed will be based on the Framework for the 4th grade in California.

5) This project is being developed primarily for teachers' use in delivering multimedia lessons to 4th grade students in California.

Back to the top


Limitations

 

1) Hardware, software; Teachers, classrooms and districts have a variety of hardware and software available in varying conditions. Much of the equipment and software programs available are not up to current standards required to run multimedia and telecommunications.

2) This project is limited by the end user's interest and ability in technology. It will be used primarily by those educators who are interested in delivering lessons through the use of multimedia.

3) Technology is in a constant state of flux and change. That which is standard and current today, may in fact be obsolete and unusable in the future.

Back to the top


Definition of Terms

 

browser: a piece of computer software required to view and use the World Wide Web allowing the user to look up information (Comer, D. E., 1995).

digital video: video that is digitized to be played on a computer rather than in an analog or traditional video format (VivoActive VideoNow™ user's guide, version 2.0. (1997).

download: the transferring of information, graphics, and/or software from the Internet or a remote computer to an individual hard drive on a computer (Burger, J., 1993).

electronic mail: mail messages sent from one person or group to another via a computer network (Comer, D. E., 1995).

e-mail: an abbreviation of electronic mail (Comer, D. E., 1995).

framework: describes what will be taught in each of the grades K - 12 in the State of California (California Department of Education's Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment Division, History - Social Science and Visual and Performing Arts Unit, 1990).

Hypermedia: allows a user to navigate through a computer program, creating interactivity which allows the user to make choices about what to see and where to go (Vaughan, P. , & Vaughan, T., 1997).

Internet: a collection of networks linked together through the use of a common language (Comer, D. E., 1995).

Multimedia: more than one type of media presentation, such as video, computer program, sounds, graphic, and text (Burger, J., 1993).

network: computers interconnected in order to exchange information (Comer, D. E., 1995).

on-line: the overall telecommunications process (Burger, J., 1993).

streaming video: video which plays immediately on a web page while it is still downloading. (VivoActive VideoNow™ user's guide, version 2.0. (1997).

telecommunications: transferring information electronically through current telephone systems (Burger, J., 1993).

World Wide Web: an Internet service using hypermedia as means to obtain information (Comer, D. E., 1995).

Back to the top


Chapter Two

 

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

 

 

The State of California Framework/Standards

 

The History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve was developed by the History-Social Science curriculum Framework and criteria Committee and adopted by the California State Board of Education in July 1987. "District and school administrators and teachers now are responsible for carefully studying the guidelines in this document and assessing: (1) the status of the current curriculum and instruction; and (2) the capacity of existing textbooks and instructional materials to address this new framework" (History - Social Science Curriculum Framework and Criteria Committee, 1988, p. x). This Framework is a guideline to what must be taught in the public schools in the State of California.

According to the Framework, "the emphasis on people is especially appropriate in grades four through eight, because these are the years when students are especially open and receptive to the study of people who are different from themselves" (History - Social Science Curriculum Framework and Criteria Committee, 1988, p. 45). It also states that "students study, through history, the origin and development of major Western and non-Western civilizations. Historical analysis must be grounded in the lives of people and events, and specific periods of history must be studied fully and in depth" (History - Social Science Curriculum Framework and Criteria Committee, 1988, p. 44). The study of the California Missions; the missionaries, soldiers, Native California Indians, settlers, and European royalty combine to give the students what the Framework requires in a very unique manner.

The Framework lists the following as major subtitles for grade four; "• The Physical Setting: California and Beyond

• Pre-Columbian Settlements and People

• Exploration and Colonial History

• Missions, Ranchos, and the Mexican War for Independence

• Gold Rush, Statehood, and the Westward Movement

•The period of Rapid Population Growth, Large-Scale

Agriculture, and Linkage to the Rest of the United States

• Modern California: Immigration, Technology, and Cities"

(History - Social Science Curriculum Framework and Criteria Committee, 1988, p. 44-45). The California Missions relate to six of these seven subtitles. The Missions were established based on geography, and abundance of Indians. The missionaries were some of the first explorers in the State of California, and the effect of the Mexican War for Independence, the Gold Rush and Westward Movement all were related to the missions in one way or another.

One reason for settling California was to bring Christianity to the native peoples. Students should understand the geographical factors involved in locating the missions so that they were a day's walk apart and situated along native pathways near sources of water. Presidios were erected by the colonial governors on sites that could be defended. Cattle ranches and agricultural villages were developed around the missions and presidios. European plants, agriculture, and a herding economy were introduced to the region (History - Social Science Curriculum Framework and Criteria Committee, 1988, p. 47-48).

The State of California is currently revising the older (1988) Framework on History-Social Science. The revision is entitled Purposed History/Social Science Standards and in section 4.2, outlines the requirements for fourth grade in relationship to the California Missions.

Students learn the story of their home state, unique in American history in terms of its vast and varied geography, its many waves of immigration beginning with Pre-Columbian societies, its continuous diversity, economic energy, and rapid growth. In addition to the specific treatment of milestones in California history, students examine the state in the context of the rest of the nation, with an emphasis on the U.S. Constitution and the relationship between state and federal government.

•4.2 Students describe the major social and political interactions among the people of California from the Pre-Columbian societies to the Spanish mission and Mexican rancho periods, in terms of:

•1. the major nations of California Indians, their geographic distribution, economic activities, legends, and religious beliefs; and how they depended upon, adapted to and modified the physical environment by cultivation of land and sea resources

•2. the early routes (by ship and by land) to, and European settlements in, California with a focus on the exploration of the North Pacific, noting the physical barriers of mountains, deserts, ocean currents, and wind patterns (e.g., Captain Cook, Valdez, Vitus Bering, Juan Cabrillo)

•3. the Spanish exploration and colonization of California, including the relationships among soldiers, missionaries and Indians (e.g., biographies of Juan Crespi, Junipero Serra, Gaspar de Portola)

•4. the mapping, geographic basis of, and economic factors in the placement and function of the Spanish missions; how the mission system expanded the influence of Spain and Catholicism throughout New Spain and Latin America

•5. the daily lives of the people, native and non-native, who occupied the presidios, missions, ranchos, and pueblos

•6. the role of the Franciscans in the change of California from a hunter-gatherer economy to an agricultural economy

•7. the effects of the Mexican War for Independence on Alta California, including the territorial boundaries of North America (Purposed History/Social Science Standards, 1998)

Incorporated into each of the curricular content Frameworks in the State of California are references to technology and its' relation to the learning process and integration into the classroom. The History-Social Science Framework supports "the use of technology to supplement reading and classroom activities and to enrich the teaching of history and social science. Video resources such as video programs and laser discs, computer software, and newly emerging forms of educational technology can provide invaluable resources for the teaching of history, geography, economics, and the other disciplines" (History - Social Science Curriculum Framework and Criteria Committee, 1988, p. 7-8).

There is a master plan for educational technology in the State of California which outlines goals, objectives and funding sources for the K-12 public school system. The first recommendation in this plan is "Technology in every learning environment. Provide access to an array of information and instructional technology devices and resources for every learner, faculty and staff member in every teaching/learning environment. Technology for All Students - Provide an array of information devices for all learners in each of the four public educational segments as appropriate to the students' learning" (California Planning Commission for Educational Technology, 1998).

Back to the top


United States Department of Education

 

The U.S. Department of Education, Office of Education Technology has developed "The Technology Literacy Challenge". The four Pillars of this challenge are;

•I.Modern computers and learning devices will be accessible to every student.

•II.Classrooms will be connected to one another and to the outside world.

•III.Educational software will be an integral part of the curriculum -- and as engaging as the best video game.

•IV.Teachers will be ready to use and teach with technology (Office of Education Technology , 1998).

The entire nation is planning on having educational technology as an every day part of the classroom, with Internet access and other methods of information retrieval. Computers are to be one more tool for every student to use in his/her academic experience. "Effective collaboration, sharing of resources, and delivery will be necessary to ensure the incorporation of technology into curriculum and instruction" (Office of Education Technology , 1998). It is apparent that Educational Technology has become a major part of the elementary school curriculum across the United States of America.

Back to the top


The California Missions

 

History ties us to the past and connects us to the future. It is through the study of our past that we can learn and build for the future.

The California Academic Standards Commission has worked to develop history-social science standards that reflect California's commitment to history-social science education. These standards emphasize historical narrative, the role of significant individuals throughout history and convey the rights and obligations of citizenship. In that spirit, the standards proceed chronologically and call attention to the story of America as a noble experiment in constitutional democracy. They recognize that America's on-going struggle to realize the ideals of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution is the struggle to maintain our beautifully complex national heritage of e pluribus unum. While emphasizing Western civilizations as the source of American political institutions, laws, and ideology, the standards also expect students to analyze the changing political relationships within and among other countries and regions of the world, both throughout history and within the context of contemporary global interdependence. The standards serve as the basis for statewide assessments, curriculum frameworks and instructional materials, but methods of instructional delivery remain the responsibility of local educators (Purposed History/Social Science Standards).

The Missions of California were the first permanent settlements by non-native peoples. There were of course, Indian villages throughout California, but it was the missions that established areas which would in time become the majority of the urban cities in the state today.

The California Mission chain was started in 1769 by Father Junipero Serra at the direction King Charles III of Spain. King Charles wanted to establish permanent settlements in Alta California to keep control of the land as other people and countries were beginning to come to the area. The settled land was to become part of the Spanish territory. The missions were built near the coast to establish towns, and to be able to trade with ships and people coming to the area. The last reason for building the missions was to convert the Indians to Christianity. The missions were placed a day's walk from each other. The entire span of missions along the El Camino Real is 650 miles. The missions were similar in appearance with each having a quadrangle where the shops and rooms were, a church and a bell tower. The church was built to be as tall as the highest tree in the area so that it could be easily seen from a great distance.

"When the Spaniards arrived in California, Indians were living on the land. It is believed that over 300,000 Indians lived in California when the Spanish missionaries first settled here in 1769. The Indians belonged to over fifty tribes" (Lyngheim, L., 1990, p. 15).

The Indians of California adapted to the mission system in one way or another. Most of the Indians willingly became part of the mission life, but others left their for native lands to continue with their own way of life. Many were forced to live on the missions and were treated badly by the Spanish soldiers. Unfortunately, the missions were a main reason for the loss of so many California Indians. They were killed by unknown and unfamiliar diseases, starved, beaten, killed or assimilated into the Spanish culture so much so that it is hard to find a true Native Californian today. The Indian way of life was drastically changed by the missions they had to follow. The padres' rules and religion were unfamiliar to them. They had to live in the mission compound and follow a hard schedule. Thousands of California Indians are buried in mission cemeteries.

The economy of the missions were similar to each other in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. Each mission worked hard to be self-sufficient and independent. They would help each other by trading and selling their goods. Nearly all of the work done at the missions was done by the local Indians.

Many of the largest cities in the State of California started as pueblos of the missions. Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, San Jose, San Juan Capistrano, just to name some of the cities, all grew up as part of the mission system. The California Missions are important because of this. Without the missions, these towns would not exist. There is almost nowhere in California that you can't see some remains of our Spanish and Mexican heritage, the missions were a very, very large part of that heritage.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time.

Many of the missions were rebuilt and restored following the period of secularization. Most are just rebuilt replicas of the original churches. Most of the missions have a representation of the quadrangle which was so important in the life of the missions. All of the missions have ruins to see, museums and unique stories to tell. Nearly all of the missions are used as parish churches serving a local community. The restoration continues to this day and will always be an important part of California's Spanish history. They are open to visitors and students of 4th grade and of California history.

"Each mission has its own story to tell. The story of the missions is really the story of the people. It is about the Indians and the padres who lived, struggle, and even died out in the wild lands of early California" (Lyngheim, L., 1990, p. 43)".

Back to the top


The Individual California Missions

 

San Diego de Alcala

Mission San Diego de Alcala was founded on July 16, 1769, by Father Junipero Serra, Father-Presidente of the Mission Chain. It was the 1st mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California and known as the "Mother of the Alta California Missions". It was named for Saint Didacus of Alcala, a name given to the bay 167 years earlier by the Spanish explorer, Sebastian Vizcaino. Father Luis Jayme was left in charge of building the mission when Father Serra left for Monterey to establish the 2nd mission. The church building is 135 feet long and 29 feet high.

The Yuma Indians were not friendly in the beginning. They did not want these men taking their land. The missionaries were having trouble bringing the Indians into the mission due to the soldiers' treatment of the Indians. Indians slowly began to come to the mission. In 1775 several hundred Indians attacked the Mission. Father Jayme walked towards the attacking Indians saying "Love God, my children". The Indians killed the man who was trying to help them. Father Jayme was the first priest and martyr in California. Many people were killed and the Indians lost the battle. After that night, the Indians were friendlier to the white man. In 1797 there were 565 new Indians added to the mission which brought the total to 1,400 Indians living at the Mission San Diego de Alcala. All of the Indians were given new clothes each year.

The economy at Mission San Diego de Alcala was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. In 1795 a system of aqueducts was begun to bring water to the fields and the mission. By 1797 the mission had 50,000 areas of land growing wheat, barley, corn, and beans. They also grew vineyards of grapes and orchards and vegetables at the mission. They had 20,000 sheep, 10,000 cattle and 1,250 horses in 1797. The Indian women were trained in candle and soap making, weaving, sewing, and cooking. The mission grew slower than most and was not as successful.

The City of San Diego grew up around the mission. The mission sits on a hill overlooking the city today. San Diego has grown to be a very large and important city in California.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. By 1827, the mission had begun to decline. There was no money coming from Mexico or Spain to help the mission. For years weeds grew on the mission land. In 1846 the Mission San Diego de Alcala was given to a Mexican man, Santiago Arguello. When the United States took over California, the mission was used by the military from 1846 to 1862.

When the Mission San Diego de Alcala was given back to the church, it was in ruins. It wasn't until the 1880's that Father Anthony Ubach began to restore the old mission buildings. He died in 1907 and the restoration stopped. In 1931 an effort was begun to rebuild the mission. Slowly the mission compound was rebuilt.

In 1941 the mission once again became a parish church. In 1976, Pope Paul VI designated the mission church as a Minor Basilica, a great honor. Today the mission is still an active parish serving the busy City of San Diego.

Back to the top


San Luis Rey de Francia

Mission San Luis Rey de Francia was founded on June 13, 1798, by Father Fermin Lasuen, Father-Presidente of the Mission Chain after Father Junipero Serra's death. It was the 18th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint Luis IX, King of France in the 1200's. It was the last mission to be founded by Father Lasuen. Father Anthony Peyri was put in charge of the mission. It was he who designed and supervised the building of the entire mission. The church is 180 feet long, 28 feet wide, and 30 feet high. It was one of the largest missions covering over 6 acres of land. It was known as "King of the Missions".

The Luiseno Indians loved the Mission San Luis Rey de Francia. In fact, more Indians lived at this mission than any other mission in Alta California. In the early 1830's the mission had 2,800 Indians living in its boundaries. The main reason was the padre, Father Peyri. He stayed at the mission for 33 years. When the Mexican government ordered him to return to Spain in 1832, the Indians followed him to the San Diego harbor and begged him to stay but, he was forced to leave. Two Indian boys traveled with him to Spain. One of them Pablo Tac, became a priest and wrote his life story. This is the only known record to be written by a mission Indian.

The economy at Mission La Purisima Concepcion was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. Mission San Luis Rey de Francia raised more livestock than any other mission. Their herds reached 27,000 head of cattle, 26,000 sheep, and thousands of horses. The crops averaged 5,000 bushels a year. It was Father Peyri who brought the first pepper tree to California. This was the most successful of all the missions.

The buildings were arranged around a 500 by 500 foot quadrangle. That is nearly the size of 2 football fields long. In 1826 a visitor from France described this mission as looking like "a Palace". There were many visitors to this mission.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. This was just two years after the departure of Father Peyri. The mission decayed rapidly, the livestock and mission goods were all stolen and the crops died. The Indians went to live in the hills and nearby valleys. Governor Pio Pico sold the mission for $2,437 to his relatives even though the mission was worth over $200,000 at the time.

No services were held at the Mission San Luis Rey de Francia for 46 years. It wasn't until 1892 when two Mexican padres were given permission to restore the mission as a monastery. Father Joseph O'Keefe was assigned to the mission as an interpreter for the monks. It was he who began to restore the old mission in 1895. The quadrangle and church were completed in 1905.

Today Mission San Luis Rey de Francia is a working mission. It is cared for by the people who belong to the parish. It is still being restored today. There is a museum and visitors center at the mission.

Back to the top


San Juan Capistrano

Mission San Juan Capistrano was founded on November 1, 1776 by Father Junipero Serra. It was the 7th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint John of Capistrano, Italy, theologian. It is the only mission to have been founded twice. Originally it was founded by Father Lasuen on October 30, 1775. Eight days after the founding the mission San Diego de Alcala was under attack. The padres, soldiers and others returned to San Diego . Before they left, Padre Lasuen buried the mission bells. Father Serra returned to uncover the bells and once again begin the mission at San Juan Capistrano.

The local Juaneno Indians at Mission San Juan Capistrano were friendly from the very beginning, helping to build the mission buildings, chapel and church. The work of building was done by the Indians. The Indians became skilled working in the mission workshops. The Indians spun, wove, sewed, and carved wood. They became good wagonmakers, blacksmiths, shoemakers, winemakers, and olive-oil makers. They were good at making leather hides too.

The economy of the missions were similar to each other in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. The Mission was a success from the start. There was good soil, climate and helpful Indians. Records show that in 1811 San Juan Capistrano grew 500,000 pounds of wheat; 190,000 pounds of barley; 202,000 pounds of corn; 20,600 pounds of beans; 14,000 cattle; 16,000 sheep and 740 horses.

As the mission grew, its people outgrew the small chapel. In 1797, work began on what was to become the largest church in the California Mission Chain. It was finished in 1806. In December of 1812, while two Indians were ringing the mass bells, a large earthquake hit the area and destroyed most of the church, killing 40 Indians including the two boys who were ringing the bells. They never rebuilt the church, instead choosing to continue using the chapel for services. The quadrangle was built so big that it could house all of the mission Indians. The small chapel is known as the Father Serra Chapel of Father Serra's Church as that is the only remaining building where it is certain that he said mass.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. A copy of this is on display in the mission museum. At this time there were 861 Indians living at the mission. They did not want to stay at the mission and in 1845 the mission was sold to governor Pio Pico's brother-in-law for $710,000.

The Mission San Juan Capistrano was not kept up during the years following secularization. By 1866, the mission was rotting and near ruin. Several attempts were made to restore the mission, but it wasn't until 1910 when Father John O'Sullivan came to the mission that it was completely restored and rebuilt. In 1918, Father O'Sullivan was given permission to make the mission into an active church once again. The following priests at the mission have continued to restore and maintain the mission.

Today, the mission is an active parish that continues to serve the people of the City of San Juan Capistrano. The mission and the grounds have been wonderfully restored, with a complete quadrangle. In some of the rooms at the mission are museums and displays from the mission period. Visitors are welcomed at the mission. One of the most popular events is the return of the swallows each March 19th. These birds fly south for the winter on October 23rd and return on March 19th every year like clockwork. Crowds of people come to greet them each year. The restoration and loving care given to Mission San Juan Capistrano has helped it to be known as "Jewel of the Missions".

Back to the top


San Gabriel Arcangel

Mission San Gabriel Arcangel was founded on September 8, 1771 by Father Junipero Serra, Presidente of the California Missions Chain. It was the 4th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for the Archangel Gabriel. The mission was designed by Father Antonio Cruzado with the front of the mission actually being a side wall. The entrance to the mission is on the side of the building.

There are nearly 6,000 Indians buried at Mission San Gabriel Arcangel. The Indians near the mission were from the Gabrielino Tribe. At first there was trouble with the Indians as the soldiers treated them very poorly. But in time, the padres gained the Indians confidence as soon there were many Indians living at the mission. Many of the Indians were hired as laborers in the pueblo of Los Angeles.

Mission San Gabriel was a busy and active mission. The economy at Mission San Gabriel Arcangel was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. The mission grew large crops of food such as corn and beans. It was also well known for its fine wines, and most of the soap and candles used at the other missions were made at the Mission San Gabriel Arcangel.

The El Camino Real was the main road that connected all of the 21 mission together. However, Mission San Gabriel Arcangel was reached by 3 roads; the El Camino Real, one from Mexico and the third from the East Coast of the United States of America. The mission was always a center of activity with many travelers and guests. Settlers came to the area from many different places. They established towns called pueblos; the one near the mission was the Pueblo de Los Angeles, or commonly know today as Los Angeles.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. Governor Pio Pico broke the law on May 4, 1846, he sold the mission lands and used the money to pay off his personal debt. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time.

For nearly 20 years, the mission remained neglected and deserted. The church was used as a parish church for the city of San Gabriel from 1862 until 1908. In 1908, the Claretian Missionary Fathers came to San Gabriel and began the job of rebuilding and restoring the mission. On October 1, 1987 the Whittier-Narrows earthquake damaged the mission. It took many years to repair the buildings from the earthquake and the restoration continues today.

Today the Mission San Gabriel Arcangel is very active and busy. It sits at the intersection of Mission Boulevard and Junipero Serra Avenue in the City of San Gabriel. The intersection also has railroad tracks which are used daily. All day long cars, trucks and trains pass by the mission. It is near the center of town and remains an important part of the city.

Back to the top


San Fernando Rey de Espana

Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana was founded on September 8, 1797 by Father Fermin Lasuen, Presidente of the California Missions Chain after the death of Father Junipero Serra. It was the 17th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint Ferdinand III, King of Spain, who lived in the 1200's. The church is 243 feet long and 50 feet wide. There are 21 Roman arches along the front of the mission. It was the 4th mission founded by Father Lasuen during the summer of 1797.

In 1804 nearly 1,000 Indians lived at the mission. The Indians at the mission learned the trades of the missions. Blacksmith, farming, ranching, carpentry, weaving, leathermaking, brick making, and soapmaking all became important trades at the mission. They were also known for their winemaking. The Indians at San Fernando were famous for their grapes and wine. There are over 2,000 people buried in the cemetery at the mission, most of them are Indians.

The economy at Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. San Fernando's most successful year was 1819 when it recorded 12,800 cattle, 7,800 sheep, 176 goats, 45 pigs, 144 mules and 780 horses. Cattle raising was the biggest industry for the mission. The mission had large vineyards with grapevines that came directly from Spain. In 1832, records show that the mission had 32,000 grapevines and 1,600 fruit trees.

When you approach Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana, you will not even notice the church building. This is because for years the mission was used as a rest stop, a hotel and inn for weary travelers. The mission was built more as an inn and that is why the church itself is off from the road.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. In 1845, Governor Pio Pico declared mission buildings for sale and in 1846, made San Fernando Rey de Espana his headquarters. In 1842, the mayordomo of the mission was digging for onions when he discovered gold on the mission grounds. This was 6 years before the famous gold rush of northern California. The mission was used for many things during the late 1800's; it was a station for the Butterfield Stage Lines; it was used as storerooms for the Porter Land and Water Company; and in 1896, the quadrangle was actually used as a hog farm. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time.

San Fernando's church became a working church again in 1923 when the Oblate priests arrived. Many attempts were made to restore the old mission from the early 1900's, but it was not until the Hearst Foundation gave a large gift of money in the 1940's, that the mission was finally restored. In 1971, a large earthquake damaged the church which had to completely rebuilt. The repairs were completed in 1974.

Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana is a beautifully restored mission. It continues to be very well cared for and is still used as a parish church. It has a very busy and active life as a parish church.

Back to the top


Mission San Buenaventura

Mission San Buenaventura was founded on Easter Sunday, March 31, 1782 by Father Junipero Serra. It was the 9th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint Bonaventure, and was the last mission to be founded by Father Serra. In 1794 the first church burned down. It took the Indians 15 years to build the new church. That church still stands today.

The friendly Chumash Indians were happy to live at the mission. They were so friendly that the mission was founded right in their village. The Chumash were expert boat builders which was helpful as the mission sits on the coast with a view of the ocean. By 1816, the mission had 1,328 Indians living in its compound. They had made cone shaped homes of tule grass. The women were known for their basket making.

The economy of the missions were similar to each other in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. The Indians at Mission San Buenaventura built a 7 mile aqueduct to bring water to the mission from the mountains. This irrigation helped the crops to grow. The results of this made the mission famous for its exotic fruits, herbs, vegetables, bananas, sugar cane, figs and coconuts. The mission also had many livestock grazing on their lands.

There was a complete quadrangle during the mission years. the church was on the southwest corner and a cemetery was on the west side on the church. A grade school now stands where the old cemetery was. In 1818, the pirate Bouchard, was seen of off the coast of California. He had been terrorizing the entire coast. The padres and Indians buried some of their valuables and took the rest to the mountains for a month until the pirate had gone.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. In 1845, the mission had supposedly been rented for the next nine years. However, Governor Pio Pico had sold the land illegally and kept the money for himself.

In 1893, Father Cyprian Rubio modernized the interior of the church. He painted right over the Indians' original artwork. When he finished almost nothing remained of the old church. In 1957, new priests restored the church to its original style.

Today all that is left of the mission is the church and its garden. Services are still held in the parish church. A small museum sits at the mission with displays of Chumash artifacts and mission period items.

Back to the top


Mission Santa Barbara

Mission Santa Barbara was founded on December 4, 1786 by Father Fermin Lasuen, Presidente of the California Missions Chain. It was the 10th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint Barbara. Father Serra wanted to start this mission two years before it actually was founded. He could not get permission from the governor at that time. By the time authorization came to begin a mission, Father Serra was dying in Carmel. Mission Santa Barbara was named "Queen of the Missions". It sits high on a hill overlooking the city of Santa Barbara and the Pacific Ocean. During the first few years, there were a total of three churches built, each larger than the previous one. The final and remaining church is 161 feet long, 27 feet wide and 42 feet high. It has two matching bell towers that are each 87 feet tall. The appearance of the inside of the church has not changed since 1820.

The Chumash Indians of the Santa Barbara area were friendly and willing to help the padres with the construction of this new mission. The coast of California was home to many Indians. There were about 10,000 Chumash Indians between San Buenaventura and Point Concepcion. They lived in reed huts in large well designed villages. The Chumash were expert boatbuilders and lived off the Pacific Ocean. They would often travel to the Channel Islands in their 24 foot long boats to fish and gather food. Two hundred-fifty Indians homes were built next to the mission. They learned the skills and trades of the mission including how to get water. The padres taught them how to build a water system to get water to the mission for drinking, cooking, cleaning and irrigation. This water system was so well built, that a part of it is still used today by the City of Santa Barbara. In 1807, there were about 1,700 Indians living at the mission. In the cemetery at the mission, there are over 4,000 Indians buried, including Juana Maria. She was known as "the woman of San Nicolas Island" and for whom the book "Island of the Blue Dolphins" was based.

The main economy at this mission and all of the missions was agriculture and raising animals. In 1809, there were 5,000 head of cattle. In 1821, there were 12,820 bushels harvested. The Indians learned more than 50 different trades at Mission Santa Barbara which would allow them to earn a living in the white men's world. The mission had orange and olive trees growing in large orchards. The water system brought water to grow wheat, barley, corn, beans and peas.

In the quadrangle, there was the church, servant quarters, a sleeping place for the young native women, a tannery, a kitchen, a priests' house and storerooms. The quadrangle was a place of work and fiesta. Much of the labor was done within the quadrangle by the Indians and when the celebrations were held, they too, were in the quadrangle. The City of Santa Barbara grew up around the Santa Barbara Mission.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. When the Mexican priests took over the missions north of Mission San Antonio de Padua, Father Duran, Presidente of the missions chain moved his office to Santa Barbara. California's first bishop also moved to Santa Barbara, with both of these important priests at the mission the Mexican government did not try to take charge or sell the mission. When both of these priests died in 1846, Pio Pico tried to sell the mission, however, California became an American territory just in time to stop the sale. This is why Mission Santa Barbara is the only mission to remain under the leadership of the Franciscan Friars since the day of its founding until today.

Mission Santa Barbara is the only California mission never to have been abandoned. It has remained in continuous use by the padres since the founding day in 1786. They took good care of this mission and thus there never really was a rebirth as in some of the other missions. The mission has been well maintained and repaired through all of the years.

The City of Santa Barbara has been built near the mission. The Mission Santa Barbara today, continues to serve the city as a parish church with many active members.

Back to the top


Mission Santa Ines

Mission Santa Ines was founded on September 17, 1804 by Father Estevan Tapis, Father-Presidente of the Mission Chain after Father Fermin Lasuen's death.. It was the 19th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint Agnes. Mission Santa Ines was established to minister to the Indians of the Coast Mountains. It was a midway point between Mission Santa Barbara and Mission La Purisima Concepcion. There was also overcrowding at those missions so this mission was to relieve some of that problem.

The Chumash Indians of the area were friendly and helpful. There were over 200 on the founding day and 20 were baptized. They were good farmers and their herds of cattle grew to over 13,000. They learned the trades of the mission very well. Not all went well at the mission. Spain had stopped funding the missions after Mexico won its independence. There were many soldiers at the mission after trying to fight off the pirate Bouchard in 1818. The soldiers were no longer being paid and took out their frustrations on the Indians. On February 21, 1824, a soldier beat a young Indian for no real reason. This made many of the Indians angry and they revolted. They were tired of the harsh treatment they had received from the soldiers. Some of the Indians went to get the Indians from Missions Santa Barbara and La Purisima to help in the fight. When the fighting was over, the Indians themselves put out the fire that had started at the mission. Many of the Indians left to join the Tulare Indian Tribe in the mountains. Only a few Indians remained at the mission.

The economy at Mission Santa Ines was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. The Indians learned the trades well. Mission Santa Ines never had the success that the padres had originally hoped for. The largest number of Indians living at the mission was 768. There were also 6,000 head of cattle; 5,000 sheep; 120 goats; 150 pigs; 120 pack mules; and 770 horses in 1871, the best year at the mission.

Mission Santa Ines was a lonely place with very few visitors. In fact it was so rare that visitors came to the mission, that when one was spotted, bells were rung and everyone came to greet them at the front doors.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. The first person who was sent to be in charge of the mission, rented out half of it for $580 a year. The Indians had all left the mission and with no one to care for the fields, the mission went to ruin. The mission was later purchased by those first renters for $7,000 in 1846. The church had no money to keep up the mission when it was given back in 1862.

The first one to really try and rebuild the once beautiful mission was Father Buckler in 1904. He re-roofed the church, reinforced the walls and foundations and built a new water system. When he retired in 1924, electricity and indoor plumbing were installed. Major restoration was not begun until 1947, when The Hearst Foundation donated money to pay the for project. The restoration continues to this day.

Today the mission is an active parish. There is a museum, gift shop and information for visitors available at the mission. The Danish town of Solvang was built up around the Mission Santa Ines in the early 1900's. The restoration continues and the Capuchin Francescan Fathers take excellent care of the mission today.

Back to the top


Mission La Purisima Conception

Mission La Purisima Concepcion was founded on December 8, 1787, by Father Fermin Lasuen, Father-Presidente of the Mission Chain after Father Junipero Serra's death. It was the 11th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for "The Immaculate Conception of Mary the Most Pure". La Purisima Conception is the only mission to be built in a straight line instead of the usual quadrangle. The church is narrow but could easily hold 1,000 Indians.

The Mission La Purisima Conception was established as part of Father Serra's orders to build 3 missions to take care of the many Chumash tribes in the area. During the mission's best years, there were 1,522 Indians living on the grounds. However, great numbers began to die during 1804-1807. They were victims of smallpox and measles. Nearly 500 Indians were buried at La Purisima. The Indians became excellent at leather working. They were best known for their saddles and harnesses for horses and shoes for people. The Chumash were a friendly people. In 1824, there was a major revolt at the mission. Spain had stopped funding the missions after Mexico won its independence. There were many soldiers at the mission after trying to fight off the pirate Bouchard in 1818. The soldiers were no longer being paid and took out their frustrations on the Indians. A soldier beat an Indian at the Mission Santa Ines and a revolt spread to Mission La Purisima Conception. The Indians took over the mission for one month until more soldiers arrived from Monterey. After a 3 hour battle the Indians lost. The leaders were executed. Many of the Indians left the mission after that battle. The Indians who did not fight and were hiding in the mountains during the revolt came back to the mission, but there were not enough of them to keep the mission going as it once had.

The economy at Mission La Purisima Concepcion was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. Mission La Purisima Conception was well known for its soap, candles, wool, and leather goods. The orchards were loaded with pears and other fruit. There were vineyards of green and red grapes. This mission was famous for its fruits and wine.

The small City of Lompoc was near the mission. The city was so small that the Church made an exception to the rule that no mission is to be established within 7 miles from any city. The original site of Mission La Purisima Conception was only 1 mile from the tiny town. It was moved 4 miles east of the town in 1812 when a large earthquake hit most of Alta California and severely damaged the mission buildings.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. Within six months, all of the valuables at the mission were gone. The padres even left the mission to live at Santa Ines. They only returned to baptize or perform funerals. The mission began to fall apart and by 1844 only 200 Indians and soldiers' residence buildings remained. The mission was sold that year for $1,100. The buildings were used to house cattle, sheep and at one time there was a saloon in part of it. The mission was even used as a hideout for outlaws. For years the mission was left alone in the wind and rain to slowly fade away.

In 1934 only nine of the buildings remained at the mission. The government Civilian Conservation Corps would restore the Mission La Purisima if enough land could given back to make the mission into an historical monument. The Catholic Church and the Union Oil Company donated enough land for the restoration. It took 200 men 7 years to rebuild the mission exactly as it used to be. The buildings were all reinforced and the mission is one of the most fully rebuilt of all of the missions. The Dedication Day for the newly restored Mission La Purisima Conception was December 7, 1941, the day that World War II began for the United States.

Mission La Purisima Conception is the largest and most complete restoration done in our Historic West. The mission grounds are part of an historical park and are well cared for by the State of California Department of Parks. The mission is no longer used as a parish church. It has a visitors center and museum on the grounds in the old infirmary buildings.

Back to the top


Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa

Mission San Luis Obispo was founded on September 1, 1772 by Father Junipero Serra, Presidente of the California Missions Chain. It was the 5th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint Louis, Bishop of Toulouse. It is the only mission with an L-shaped church. The mission site was selected as it is midway between San Diego and Monterey. Father Serra left one priest to begin the buildings, Father Jose Cavalier.

When Father Serra left the mission, there was little in the way of food. There were however, many bear. The Indians were grateful for the Spaniards guns that killed the bear as they were giving the Indians a terrible time. The Indians brought food to the soldiers who were helping out with the bear problem. In 1776, a group of hostile Indians attacked the mission with flaming arrows which set the tule roof on fire. The priests knew that a safer roof was needed thus the invention of the clay tile roofs which became standard in all of the missions. The Indians near the mission were from the Chumash tribe.

The economy at Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa supplied many of the other missions with bear meat which was very plentiful.

Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa has always been the center of the community. The entire city of San Luis Obispo and even the county was built up around the mission. The mission has been the center and focal point of the city since the very beginning.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. In 1845, Governor Pio Pico declares Mission buildings for sale and he sold everything except the church for a total of $510. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time.

The mission fell into ruins during the period of secularization and the priest that were left would rent out rooms to help support the mission. The Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa became the first courthouse and jail in the San Luis Obispo County. In 1872, during the 100th anniversary of the mission that improvements began. It wasn't until Father John Harnett came to the mission in 1933 that real restoration began. Harry Downie was in charge of the restoration and it was he who created the L-shaped church to accommodate more people at services.

The San Luis Obispo de Tolosa Mission is still the center of the busy downtown area. The creek by the mission which once supplied water to mission still runs by the main streets in the town and children can be seen playing in the water. The Mission functions as a parish church for the city of San Luis Obispo and although many changes have come to the mission, it remains the center of town.

Back to the top


Mission San Miguel Arcangel

Mission San Miguel Arcangel was founded on July 25, 1797 by Father Fermin Lasuen, Presidente of the California Missions Chain. It was the 16th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California and the 3rd mission founded during the summer of 1797. It was named for Saint Michael, the Arcangel. One of the chief purposes of this mission was to facilitate travel between Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa and Mission San Antonio de Padua. The mission system was designed so that each mission was one day's travel from its neighbor. The church is 144 feet long ,27 feet wide and 40 feet tall. The walls are 6 feet thick. The inside of the mission has never been repainted. This means the the colors you see were created and painted by the Indians.

On July 25, 1797, at the founding ceremony of Mission San Miguel Arcangel, 15 Indian children were baptized. This was the beginning of a long and friendly relationship with the Spanish Padres and the Salinan Indians. They eagerly awaited the arrival of the padres and the establishment of this mission. The Indians had heard good things about the missions and wanted to be part of the system. Several Indian families from other missions even came to help in the beginning of this mission. The number of Indians at the mission grew to over 1,000.

Mission San Miguel Arcangel was a busy and active mission. The economy at Mission San Miguel Arcangel was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. The Indians at the mission were excellent at making roof tiles. Between 1808 and 1809, they made 36,000 tiles. They would sell or trade the tiles to other missions. Mission San Miguel Arcangel was one of the most prosperous of all of the missions.

Mission San Miguel Arcangel was set up as a midway point between the missions San Luis Obispo de Tolosa and Mission San Antonio de Padua. The Indians were friendly and even anxious to be part of the mission. Travelers were always welcomed with a place to stay and food to eat. In 1806 a fire destroyed two rows of buildings and the roof of the church. Nearby missions helped out with tools, supplies and materials so the mission could be rebuilt.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. In 1846 Governor Pio Pico sold the mission for $600 to Petronillo Rios and William Reed. Reed used the mission as a family residence and a store. In 1848, Reed left to find gold as a participant in the California Gold Rush. Upon his return, 5 runaway sailors robbed and killed everyone at the mission. They were eventually captured but they left 11 people dead. The mission was a stopping place for miners coming from Los Angeles to San Francisco. The mission was used as a saloon, dance hall, storeroom and living quarters.

In 1878, after 38 years without a resident padre, Father Philip Farrelly became the First Pastor of Mission San Miguel Arcangel. Through all the years the priests kept the church in condition and it is called the best-preserved church in the mission chain today. In 1928, Mission San Miguel Arcangel and Mission San Antonio de Padua were returned to the Franciscan order of priest. Since then, the mission has been repaired and restored.

Today the mission is similar to the old mission days. It is located in the town of San Miguel just 7 miles north of Paso Robles. It continues to serve the town as an active parish church. It has one of the best preserved interior and gives one of the best examples of old mission life.

Back to the top


Mission San Antonio de Padua

Mission San Antonio de Padua was founded on July 14, 1771 by Father Junipero Serra, Presidente of the California Missions. It was the 3rd mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. The name of the mission means, Saint Anthony of Padua of the Oaks. Father Serra left two priests at the mission to begin the buildings, they were Father Miguel Pieras and Father Buenaventura Sitjar. In 1774, there were 178 Indians, 68 cattle and 7 horses at the mission. The building of the church did not actually begin until 1810. By 1805 there were 1,300 Indians living at the mission and in 1827, the mission had 7,362 cattle, 11,000 sheep, 500 mares and colts and 300 horses.

The story of the Indians at this mission begins on the day of Father Serra's first mass. A curious Indian boy watched the mass that dedicated Mission San Antonio de Padua. Afterwards Father Serra offered him gifts. He treated the Indian so kindly that he brought members of his tribe to meet Father Serra. These friendly Indians were always helpful and loyal through all the years that San Antonio was a working mission. In 1774, there were 178 Indians living at the mission. By 1805, the total was 1,300. In 1834 after the secularization laws went into effect, the total number of Indians at the mission was only 150.

The economy at Mission San Antonio de Padua was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. Some of the shops at the mission were a weavery, a room for carding and spinning wool, a tannery for treating leather, a carpenter shop, a stable, and a harness shop.

Mission San Antonio is one mission which grew rapidly and maintained itself very well. The mission was self supporting and self sufficient. However, no town grew up around the mission as so many did at the other missions. Today the nearest city is King City, nearly 29 miles away. Jolon, a small town, is 6 miles from the mission. The mission padres and Indians built their own buildings and lived peacefully for many years.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. In 1845, Governor Pio Pico declared Mission buildings for sale and no one even bids for San Antonio. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time.

The first attempt at rebuilding the mission came in 1903, when the California Landmark League rebuilt the church walls. It took nearly 50 years to completely restore the mission. In the 1940's, The Hearst Foundation gave the church $50,000 for repairs. In 1928, Franciscan Friars returned to San Miguel and also held services at San Antonio de Padua.

The Mission is surrounded by the Fort Hunter Liggett Military Reservation which was acquired by the Army from Hearst during World Was II to train troops. Additional land was acquired from the Army in 1950 to bring the total mission acreage to over 85 acres. This fort is still actively training troops today.

Back to the top


Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad

Mission Nuestra de la Soledad was founded on October 9, 1791 by Father Fermin Lasuen, Presidente of the California Missions Chain. It was the 13th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Our Lady of Solitude. One of the chief purposes of this mission was to facilitate travel between Mission San Carlos de Borromeo de Carmelo and Mission San Antonio de Padua. The mission system was designed so that each mission was one day's travel from its neighbor.

The friendly Costanoan Indians gave the mission its name. In 1769, Juan Crespi and Gaspar de Portola visited the area on their way to Monterey. An Indian wandered by and spoke a word over and over. The word sounded like Soledad, which means loneliness in Spanish. The area did in fact seem lonely. The word solitude means loneliness and is one of the designations of the Virgin Mary, for whom the mission is named. There were very few Indians in the area when the mission was founded, which is why it took so long for the mission to be built. There were not enough Indians to do the work. Five years after its founding, the mission population was 727 and in 1820, the number of Indians converted to Christianity was 2,000.

The economy at Mission Nuestra de la Soledad was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. Broad fields supported herds of cattle, several thousand sheep, and five hundred horses.

Mission Nuestra de la Soledad was set up as a midway point between the missions San Carlos de Borromeo de Carmelo and Mission San Antonio de Padua. The community prospered at first and the Padres directed the Indians to build an irrigation system from the Salinas River to support the mission with water. The mission had troubles with crops and overflowing rivers. A disease called the plague killed many Indians, and others left to find a better life. When the padres were gone, the Indians abandoned the mission.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. The Mission Nuestra de la Soledad was sold in 1841 for $800.

For 90 years after the last padre left the mission it sat crumbling in the wind and rain. In 1954, when restoration was begun, only piles of adobe dirt were remaining. All that was left was the front part of the chapel. It is still being rebuilt and restored, archeologists still work at the mission trying to learn from the past. The ruins of the quadrangle, cemetery and some of the rooms can still be seen at the mission.

Nuestra de la Soledad today serves a as mission of the parish of Soledad. It is open for visitors, but is not used as a parish church.

Back to the top


Mission San Carlos de Borromeo de Carmelo

Mission San Carlos de Borromeo de Carmelo was founded on June 3, 1771 by Father Junipero Serra, Presidente of the California Missions Chain. It was the 2nd mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint Charles Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan. In the summer of 1771, building was started by 40 Indians from Baja California Missions, 3 soldiers and 5 sailors. This was to be Father Serra's headquarters in California.

The Eslenes Indians who lived near the mission were friendly and willing to help the padres with the mission. The Indians were trained as plowmen, shepherds, cattle herders, blacksmiths, and carpenters. They worked at making adobe bricks, roof tiles and tools needed to build the mission. In 1794, the Indian population reached 927, but by 1823 the total had dwindled to 381. Between 1770 and 1836, over 4,000 Indians were baptized at the Mission.

The economy at Mission San Carlos de Borromeo de Carmelo was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. In the beginning, the mission relied on bear meat from Mission San Antonio de Padua and supplies brought by ship from Mission San Diego de Alcala. In 1774, supplies ran low and the mission people almost died. In 1775 the harvest was 4 times greater, and with Juan Bautista de Anza bringing supplies by land, they no longer had to rely on ship for supplies. By 1794, there was an abundance of crops and the mission was prosperous.

Mission San Carlos de Borromeo de Carmelo was busy from the beginning. It was near Monterey, which would soon become the capital of California. It was also the headquarters for all of the California Missions and had many visitors.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. The church and quadrangle fell into ruin during this time.

It was not until 1884 that Father Angel Casanova undertook the work of saving this historic landmark. In 1931, Msgr. Philip Scher appointed Harry Downie to be curator in charge of mission restoration. Two years later Carmel Mission became an independent parish. In 1961, the Mission was honored and designated as a Minor Basilica by Pope John XXIII.

Today Mission San Carlos de Borromeo de Carmelo is one of the most popular tourist sites in all of California. It is widely recognized as the head of the mission chain which was responsible for the settlement of Alta California. It is a place of pilgrimage for visitors from all over the world. In September 1987, Pope John Paul II visited the mission as part of his U.S. tour. It is also a very busy and active parish church.

Father Junipero Serra was a man true to his vow of poverty. When Father Junipero Serra died on August 28, 1784, his only possessions were a board cot, a blanket, one table, one chair, a chest, a candlestick, and a gourd. Nothing else. He is buried in the Mission sanctuary along with Fathers Juan Crespi and Fermin Lasuen. In 1985, Pope John Paul II declared Junipero Serra venerable and in 1988 he was beatified in recognition of his heroic virtues. He is one of the most important figures in the history of California and the United States of America.

Back to the top


Mission San Juan Bautista

Mission San Juan Bautista was founded on Saturday, June 24, 1797 by Father Fermin de Lasuen, Presidente of the California Missions, a post he held after the death of Father Junipero Serra. It was the 15th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint John the Baptist. The mission church is said to be the largest of the missions and held 1,000 people during the mission days. The dimensions are 188 feet long and 72 feet wide and is the only mission with 3 aisles, two on the sides and one down the center of the church.

The cemetery is an olive grove behind the church. There are more than 4,000 Indians buried in the mission cemetery which is located right on the San Andreas earthquake fault. In the distance you can see present day farmers working the crops in the Central Valley of California just as the mission Indians once worked.

The Indians of the Mission San Juan Bautista area were part of the Ohlone Tribe. They were friendly and came to help build the mission, work in the fields and take care of the cattle. The Indians built all of the buildings and did nearly all of the work on the mission. The Indians at this mission liked the lifestyle so much that they needed to enlarge the church to hold 1,000 people.

The economy at Mission San Juan Bautista was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. A thriving trading center for tides, tallow and farm products, sprung up around the mission.

The town of San Juan Bautista grew up around the mission. Barracks for soldiers, a nunnery, the Castro House and other buildings were constructed around a large grassy plaza in front of the church and can be seen today in their original form. The town of San Juan Bautista grew rapidly during the Gold Rush and continues to be a thriving community today.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time.

Mission San Juan Bautista has served mass daily since 1797, so there never was much of a rebirth. The mission was restored in once 1884, and again, in 1949 the mission was restored and was financed by the Hearst foundation.

Mission San Juan Bautista is still active to this day and claims to have served mass every day since 1797. The mission is still used as a parish church and continues be active in the community.

Back to the top


Mission Santa Cruz

In 1769, Spanish explorers led by Gaspar de Portola named this area Santa Cruz, or Holy Cross in English. Mission Santa Cruz was founded on September 25, 1791 by Father Fermin Lasuen, Presidente of the California Missions Chain. It was the 12th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for the Sacred Cross. The church was completed in 1794. It was 112 feet long and 29 feet wide.

The Indians who built and lived at the mission were from the Yokut and Ohlone Tribes. They became known as the Santa Cruz Indians as most of the the Mission Indians were named by the Spaniards at the local mission. The first few years at Mission Santa Cruz were happy and prosperous. Indian Chief Sugert and his family became members of the mission. By 1796 the total number of Indians was around 500 at the mission.

The economy at Mission Santa Cruz was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. Records show that in 1796 the farm had produced 1,200 bushels of grain, 600 bushels of corn, and 60 bushels of beans.

The Mission Santa Cruz seemed destined for trouble. In 1799 a rainstorm damaged the church so badly that it had to be rebuilt. Father Quintana was tricked into visiting a sick Indian and attacked and killed by the Indians. The Indians were punished but said that the padre treated them badly. In 1818, the padres and Indians were ordered to leave the mission and go to Mission Soledad for fear of pirate attacks. The settlers near the mission were to hide the mission valuables, when the padres and Indians returned they found that the valuables had instead been stolen. The settlers also damaged the inside of the church. The town of Branciforte continued to be trouble for the mission. The town became a place for gambling, thievery, and drunkenness. This proved to be a poor influence on the Indians who left the mission to work in the town. By 1831 there were only 300 Indians left at Mission Santa Cruz which was not enough to continue the mission.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. A series of earthquakes in 1857 destroyed the mission. The mission was put up for sale, but no one wanted to buy it. In 1858 a wood frame church was built on the old mission property. In 1889 the current Gothic style Holy Cross Church was built on the original adobe mission site.

There is nothing left of the original mission except for a row of buildings which at one time housed Indian families. The buildings are open to visitors and are in remarkable condition. In 1931 Gladys Sullivan Doyle proposed to build a replica of the mission. She used her own money to build a half size replica of the mission church. Today only the little chapel is left to remind the world of Mission Santa Cruz.

The Mission Santa Cruz is a museum open to visitors. The Holy Cross Church on the site of the original church is an active and busy parish. The half size chapel has weekday masses and is available for weddings and funerals. It is a small reminder of a once rich heritage.

Back to the top


Mission Santa Clara

Mission Santa Clara de Asis was founded on January 12, 1777 by Father Junipero Serra, Presidente of the California Missions Chain. It was the 8th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint Clare of Assisi, founder of the order "Poor Clares". Santa Clara was the first mission to be named after a woman. The mission had a very slow start. Lt. Moraga, Father Tomas de la Pena, some mission Indians, and soldiers with their families came to start the mission. With so few people to help, the walls went up slowly. The mission is a day's journey from Mission San Francisco de Asis (Mission Dolores) and was established to help protect the San Fransico Bay area. The church is 100 feet long, 44 feet wide and 25 feet high.

The local Indians were friendly and hungry. By 1800, there were 1,247 Indians living at the mission. They were learning trades like weaving, farming, leather tanning, and tool making. One of the reasons that the Indians liked the mission was Father Jose Viader. He was kind and forgiving and taught the Indians mission music. He developed an Indian choir which was well known throughout the mission chain.

The economy at Mission Santa Clara de Asis was similar to the other missions in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. The Indians learned the trades well. Crops and orchards of fruit grew well and olive trees grew well. Their wheat crop was among the best at any mission. They also had thousands of livestock roaming the mission lands.

There was tension between the people of Mission Santa Clara de Asis and those in nearby Pueblo San Jose. They disputed ownership rights of land and water. The tension was relieved when a road was built by 200 Indians to link the communities together. On Sundays, people from San Jose would come to the mission for services.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time.

In 1850, California became a state and the Jesuit order of priests took over the Mission Santa Clara de Asis. Father John Nobili was put in charge of the mission. He began a college on the mission site, this school grew into the Santa Clara University. It is the only mission to become part of a university. It is also the oldest university in California. Throughout the history of the mission, the bells have rung faithfully every evening. This was a promise made to King Charles IV of Spain when he sent the original bells to the mission in 1777. He asked that the bells be rung each evening at 8:30 in memory of those who had died.

Mission Santa Clara de Asis sits on the campus of the Santa Clara University. It is used as a church for the university and the community. It is open to visitors and has a museum on the campus.

Back to the top


Mission San Jose de Guadalupe

Mission San Jose de Guadalupe was founded on June 11, 1797 by Father Fermin Lasuen, Presidente of the California Missions Chain. It was the 14th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint Joseph, Patron of the Universal Church. Mission San Jose was built to fill in the mission chain. Each mission was to be a day's journey from the other and in 1797, Father Lasuen received permission to start 5 new missions. Within 2 days after the founding service, shelters were built and in 3 weeks, there were seven more buildings laid out in a rectangle. Mission San Jose received supplies and gifts from the nearby missions to help them get started. The church is 125 feet long, 30 feet wide and 24 feet high. The walls are 8 feet thick.

During the first year at Mission San Jose only 33 Indians came to live at the mission. The local Ohlone Indians were not eager to join the mission, they liked their existing way of life. The padres were patient and in time, Mission San Jose grew to have more Indians in residence than any other Northern California Mission. The Indians came from miles around to build the church, sleeping quarters, workshops and other rooms at the mission. Once in 1828, an Indian named Estanislao ran away from the mission. He did not like the mission life. One night he and other Indians attacked the mission, a large fight began and in the end, the Indians lost. The padre forgave them and welcomed them back into the mission. Estanislao and many others came back to live at the mission. Estanislao is the Indian that Stanislaus County is name after. In 1831, there were 1,886 Indian converts living at the mission.

The economy of the missions were similar to each other in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. San Jose grew to be the most successful mission in Northern California. Vegetables, fruits, and crops grew well at the Mission San Jose. In 1831, there were around 12,000 cattle, 13,000 sheep, and 13,000 horses at the mission.

In 1827, the quadrangle was completed. Each side was 900 feet long. It was here that a soap factory and tannery were built. Behind the quadrangle were the adobe Indian homes, a kitchen garden, an orchard, and a vineyard enclosed by ten foot high adobe walls. The mission grew with Indians coming from as far away as 50 miles to life at the mission. The Indians spoke many languages and dialects. The padres had to learn them in order to teach the Indians. The Indians became so good at learning to play music that they developed a 30 piece orchestra using hand made instruments until real ones arrived from Mexico. This orchestra became very famous at that time.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. Mexican Governor Pio Pico sold the mission in 1845 for $12,000. During the 1848 Gold Rush, the mission became a general store, saloon and hotel. In 1853, the church became the local parish church.

On October 21, 1868, an earthquake destroyed the mission. A small wooded church was built on the site and used for over 100 years. In 1985, the restoration of the church was completed. It took over 150,000 bricks to complete the church. This was done by the Committee for the Restoration of the Mission San Jose and the Diocese of Oakland. It is a near perfect replication of the original church. The padre's quarters are now a small museum. The mission is a small reminder of the once great days at Mission San Jose de Guadalupe.

Saint Joseph's Church at the Mission San Jose is today a local parish church. The church has regular services and also has a visitors center, museum and slide show telling the history of the mission.

Back to the top


Mission San Francisco de Asis

Mission San Francisco de Asis was founded on October 9, 1776 by Father Francisco Palou. It was the 6th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint Francis of Assisi, the founder of the Franciscan order. The name Mission Dolores is used to refer to Mission San Francisco de Asis. Juan Bautista de Anza named the river near where the mission was later founded, Arroyo de los Dolores. The church is 114 feet long and 22 feet wide. It has remained unharmed and relatively unchanged since its construction in 1782.

No Indians came to the founding ceremony of Mission San Francisco de Asis. They returned to the area about a month later, and were scared by the guns of the white men. The Coastonoan Indians did not do well at this mission. They were treated poorly by the padres. The padres were very strict and only fed the Indians dry grain. Many of the Indians ran away from the mission until new padres were sent to the mission. The Spanish brought great sickness and disease to the mission Indians. After 10 years, only a few Indians remained at the mission. Disease was so great that there are over 5,000 Indians buried in the mission cemetery. Many of the Indians went to Mission San Rafael to live in the better weather. There were around 6,500 Indians baptized, 2,000 married and over 5,000 buried at the Mission San Francisco de Asis.

The economy of the missions were similar to each other in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. Mission San Francisco struggled its whole life to support itself. The mission had a very hard time growing crops and raising herds. Most of the food came from lands that the mission owned 19 miles south of the mission. Life was so hard at this mission, that there was much discussion between the leaders on whether or not to close this mission.

The city of San Fransico grew as the mission community diminished. Many of the Indians did not want to live in a city which was growing around the mission. The quadrangle was finally completed in 1798, 22 years after the founding of the mission.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. Mission San Francisco de Asis was the first mission to be secularized. In 1845, Pio Pico warned the Indians that if they did not return to the mission then it would be sold. No Indians came and no one even wanted to buy the mission. By the time that the Gold Rush began in 1848, the city of San Francisco had grown tremendously. There were even saloons and two race tracks on the mission property.

The mission church has stood and remained unchanged since its beginning. During the 1906 earthquake, the huge basilica next to the small mission church fell and was destroyed, but the Mission San Francisco de Asis remained unharmed. In 1971 some of the wooded beams were strengthened with hidden steel beams. The church was reinforced but not changed or rebuilt.

Mission San Francisco de Asis is still an active church in the city of San Francisco. Many people attend services in the mission church and even more attend mass in the basilica next door to the mission church. The mission is open to visitors and is a wonderful legacy to the old ways of the past.

Back to the top


Mission San Rafael Arcangel

Mission San Rafael Arcangel was founded on December 14, 1817 by Father Vicente de Sarria. It was the 20th mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint Raphael, the angel of healing. The mission was started as an asistencia or branch of the Mission San Francisco de Asis. It was established as a hospital to treat the sick Indians from Mission San Francisco de Asis. The weather was much better here and helped the Indians to get better. It was never intended to be a full mission but, the mission grew and it was granted full mission status on October 19, 1822.

The Indians had a difficult beginning at the mission. Most of them were sick patients to be healed by the hospital. Many Indians were cured under the care of Father Luis Gil who took care of them and ran the hospital at the asistencia. Father Juan Amoros taught the Indians the trades. They became expert boatbuilders, blacksmiths, cowboys, carpenters and weavers. Many of the local Miwok Indians came to live at the mission. By 1828, there were 1,140 Indians living at the mission. Chief Marin was a mission Indian who turned against the mission and caused trouble for the mission with his friend Quintin. Later, he came back to life at the mission. The county of Marin is named after him and the prison San Quentin is named after his friend. They are both buried in the cemetery at the mission.

The economy of the missions were similar to each other in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. Although started as an asistencia and hospital, Mission San Rafael Arcangel grew to be a self-supporting full mission. In 1828 the year when Father Amoros died, the mission had its largest number of animals; 5,508. The wheat crop was 17,905 bushels and the bean crop was 1,360 bushels.

In 1822 when the asistencia became a full mission, there was still no quadrangle built. In fact, Mission San Rafael is one the few mission where no quadrangle was ever built. In the later years at the mission there were many difficulties. There was much fighting between the soldiers and the Indians and the padres. Many Indians were needlessly killed in battles at this mission. The Mission San Rafael Arcangel's 17 years were too short. However, during those years it converted 1,873 Indians, raised 2,210 cattle, 4,000 sheep and 454 horses.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. Mission San Rafael Arcangel was one of the first missions to turned over to the Mexican Government in 1833. In 1840, there were 150 Indians still at the mission. By 1844, Mission San Rafael Arcangel was left abandoned. What was left of the empty buildings was sold for $8,000 in 1846. The mission was used by John Fremont as his headquarters during the battles to make California a United States territory.

In 1847, a priest was once again living at the mission. A new parish church was built near the old chapel ruins in 1861. In 1870, the rest of the ruins were removed to make room for the city of San Rafael. All that was left of the mission was a single pear tree form the old mission orchard. In 1949, Msgr. Thomas Kennedy rebuilt and restored the chapel at the mission.

Today the Mission San Rafael Arcangel sits next to the parish church of St. Raphael. It is located on the site of the original hospital established by Father Gil. It is open to visitors and has a small museum and gift shop.

Back to the top


Mission San Francisco Solano

Mission San Francisco Solano was founded on July 4, 1823 by Father Jose Altimira. It was the 21st mission in the 21 mission chain in Alta California. It was named for Saint Francis Solano, missionary to Peruvian Indians. It is the only mission to have been founded without the churches permission. Father Altimira wanted to build a mission and instead of going to the Padre-Presidente as was the rule, he went to the Mexican governor. The governor wanted to close the two missions and have one further north to keep an eye on the Russians who were settling there. It was decided to build the new mission and close the Mission San Francisco de Asis and Mission San Rafael Arcangel. When the head of the missions Father Sarria heard of this he ordered the construction to be stopped. The parties involved came to a compromise, the new mission would be built and the other missions would stay open. The chapel is 22 feet wide and 105 feet long. The other missions did not give this new mission much in the way of support due to bad feelings. It was the Russians at Fort Ross who helped the new mission the most.

Many Indians came to the new mission. They came from the San Rafael, San Francisco de Asis and San Jose Missions. The priest at Mission San Francisco Solano caused trouble and was power hungry. The Indians did not want to stay at the mission. They attacked the mission and set fire to the buildings. The priest fled for his life and returned to Spain. The new padre was an excellent priest and leader. Within two years he had the mission running better than ever. Local Indians from the Pomo and Coastal Miwok Tribes came to life at the mission. In 1830 there was almost 1,000 Indians living at the mission.

The economy of the missions were similar to each other in that they planted crops of wheat and corn. They also planted vineyards, and raised cattle and sheep. The agriculture was needed not only to maintain the mission community and the nearby Indians, but was used for trade and served to visitors to the mission. The Mission San Francisco Solano never really got a chance to grow, it only lasted 9 years between its founding and secularization. It is interesting to note that today, the city of Sonoma is home to many of the most successful wineries in the state.

During the years the mission was active, Mexican General Mariano Vallejo resided in the area. His job was to watch the Russians nearby. He helped to build the town of Sonoma and even paid for the rebuilding of the small mission chapel. There were always soldiers and settler in the town of Sonoma where the mission was located.

After Mexico won its independence from Spain, it found that it could no longer afford to keep the missions running as Spain had done. In 1834, Mexico decided to end the mission system and sell all of the lands. They offered the lands to the Indians who did not want the lands or could not come up with the purchase price. The lands were divided into smaller Ranchos and sold to Mexican citizens who were helpful during the war for independence. After nearly 30 years, the missions were returned to the Catholic Church. Although some of the missions had already been returned to the church, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act declaring that all of the 21 missions in the California mission chain would become the property of the Catholic Church and have remained so since that time. By 1839 the mission was in ruins as no one lived there anymore. Through the years the mission was used as a blacksmith shop and later a saloon. It was also used as a barn and a storeroom.

In 1846, across from the mission a group of American settlers raised a flag and claimed the land for the California Republic. They wanted freedom from the Mexican government. The flag had a red star and brown bear on it. The settlers took over the town and put the General in jail. This was known as the Bear Flag Revolt. Soon after this, California became a state as part of The United States of America. During this time no one wanted the mission. It was sold to a man who used the chapel entrance as a saloon and stored his liquor and hay in the chapel.

In 1903 the Historic Landmark League bought the remains of Mission San Fransico Solano. Slowly they began to restore and rebuild the mission. It was finally complete in 1913.

Today the mission is part of the Sonoma State Historic Park. It is open to visitors and has a small museum located in the padres quarters. There is no furniture in the chapel today, which is very similar to the way it would have been originally. The Indians would sit on mats on the floor instead of in pews or chairs. It is located in the heart of the wine-growing area of California. The first vines were actually planted by the padres and now a celebration is held every year at the mission.

Back to the top


Technology and Information Related to this Project

The Internet has grown dramatically since the early days of ARPANET and the United States Department of Defense. What started as two computers talking to each other over a distance has grown into a world wide network linking millions of computers and users to each other.

Traffic on the Internet is doubling every 100 days. The Internet is growing faster than all other technologies that have preceded it. Radio existed for 38 years before it had 50 million listeners, and television took 13 years to reach that mark. The Internet crossed the line in just four years. In 1994, a mere 3 million people were connected to the Internet. By the end of last year, more than 100 millions worldwide were using it, including 62 million Americans (Daily Bulletin, April 16, 1998, p. A6 ).

The United States Government is dedicated to establishing Internet connections into every classroom in the country. It is funding the effort with grants, rebates and incentives. Soon every elementary, middle and senior high school students will have the Internet in all of their classrooms.

The Internet is a network of networks. It links computers and networks together through various means so that people can communicate with one another. "The Internet is a communication technology. Like the telephone before it, the Internet makes it possible for people to communicate in new ways" (Comer, 1995, p. 9). The most common method of communication is through a modem. As networks grow, the use of Ethernet is becoming more popular, soon cable connections, satellite service and who knows what else will take part in the upcoming future of the Internet. The Internet is available to those with a computer, modem and phone line. It is now also available to those with WebTV which allows the user to connect using their television monitor. Laptops, desktops, servers and mainframes all can connect to the Internet.

The Internet offers an advanced browsing service that extends the concept of hypermedia to include many computers. Known as the World Wide Web (WWW), the service is a mechanism that links together information stored on many computers. In essence, WWW allows the references in a document on one computer to refer to textual or nontextual information stored in other computers. A user browses the World Wide Web in the same way that one browses hypermedia documents on a single computer. At any time, the user's display shows a document that contains highlighted references. When the user selects an item, the system follows the reference, obtains the referenced item, and either plays the sound or displays the document. Thus, a user can browse through the World Wide Web without knowing where the information resides (Comer, 1995, p. 213).

Most of what is seen or viewed, other than e-mail, on the Internet is on a web page. A web page is a document that is viewed on the World Wide Web. This document can contain text, graphics, animations, sounds, videos, or applications embedded right into the page. The format of a web page is known as HTML. "The Hyper Text Markup Language - HTML - is the language of the World Wide Web. Besides Web server software itself, HTML is the nuts and bolts of the Web. Every document on the Web is written in HTML, and all the document formatting, clickable hyperlinks, graphical images, multimedia documents, fill-in forms, and all the other Web hoo-how you have seen are based in HTML" (Evans, 1995, p. vii).

Web sites or pages are created using HTML. The author writes the page using the HTML code and transfers that information onto a server that is accessible to the Internet. Once the page or site is loaded onto the server it receives a URL address and then is available to everyone in the world with an Internet connection and web browser software. The page can have text, graphics and multimedia applications embedded into it. The hyperlinks, multimedia, forms and clickable areas can make web pages interactive. The user then decides what to do and where to go on the site or the Internet. Web pages can and are linked to other web pages and thus the entire Internet is just a click away.

When a page is accessed and loaded onto an individual computer, the information is transferred via a modem. A modem transfers the 1's and 0's of the computer programming language into analog sounds which are understood by phone lines and then back into 1's and 0's at the receiving end of the communication. "A modem is a device for communication across a dial-up telephone connection of for long distance communication across a wire. A modem supports two-way communication because it contains a modulator for the signal being sent and a demodulator for the signal being received" (Comer, 1995, p. 33). Each item on the page is individually transferred from the web server to the individual user's computer. Each item takes time to transfer across the Internet. The most common home use modem is a 28800 baud modem. This modem transfers files at a rate of 28,800 bits per second. The information is bundled together in packets or chunks for transferring from one computer to the next. The faster the modem, the faster the web pages will load on the user's computer. Large files take time to load, graphics take even longer and video, which can be up to 30 frames a second or 30 individual graphics every second, take a really long time to be viewed on the end user's monitor.

All of this means that before someone puts something on the web, the site must be planned and prepared with an eventual outcome in mind. "A Web site is just like any other communication tool: It must have a worthwhile job to do. Otherwise, it's merely a waste of your time and the time of those who come across it" (Glaser, 1998).

Digital video is video that has been converted from analog to digital format. In other words, from a video tape to a computer. The video is now reformatted and viewable on a computer. It can be edited and manipulated into many different formats using video editing software. The images can be saved as individual pictures or used a a video clip in a program or application. These files can be tremendously large. A video file that has been compressed from 30 frames per second (fps) to 15 fps will take 17 minutes to download using a 28.8 modem. The video can not been seen until it is completely downloaded onto the user's computer. A 1.7 Megabyte file takes 17 minutes to download and the entire video is only 14 seconds long. The video will need to be extraordinary to wait that long for such a short clip.

Current technology has been working in developing streaming video for web pages.

Until recently, downloadable multimedia files have been most common on the Web. When you click a downloadable multimedia clip, the entire file is copied to your system before you can play it.

With large files, this can take a long time, and the clips consume valuable hard drive space. Downloadable clips are fine for button sounds or small graphics, but if you want to play several minutes of music or video, it's best to use multimedia streaming.

Streaming multimedia files begin playing as soon as the data is received. Some people refer to the process of playing these files as real-time multimedia, but that's not quite accurate; the technology cannot prevent slight time delays.

It's possible to store streamed files on a hard drive for later replay, but it's not required. Streaming is often used for playing archived files; this is known as on-demand streaming. But streaming technology also allows for the broadcasting and reception of live events, including video clips and musical concerts.

Generally speaking, a streamed file is an audio or video clip that has been specially compressed and prepared for delivery by a specific audio or video player.

When a visitor to your page clicks the link, the file conveys the URL of the streamed file to the streaming player, which in turn signals the server where the streaming file is stored and requests the corresponding file. As soon as the player receives the file from the server, the audio or video data begins to play. This all happens in a flash (LaChance, 1998, p. 52).

Streaming video compresses the digital video at a ratio of 250:1. The 1.7 megabyte file mentioned above would now be only 120 kilobytes and take only a few seconds to begin playing on computer screen on the Internet using a 28.8 modem. Streaming video seems to make sense for the World Wide Web. There is however, a loss of quality in the video. The clarity and fluidity is not a good as before compression, but with that in mind when the video is being shot and created, much of the loss in quality can be minimized.

Back to the top


Summary

Technology it seems needs to be incorporated into education in a meaningful way to help students learn. Multimedia and the use of the World Wide Web on the Internet, allows the learner to guide her/his own way in the learning process. The learner thus takes charge of the learning and follows ones interest and ability. Multimedia can be used to teach, assess, reteach and reassess all based on the user's choices in the program. The student learns while guiding his/her own destiny.

The Internet is a wonderful way to present multimedia lessons and information. Once online, it is free to the user. The best part of the Internet is that there is so much available and free to everyone. It can help to be the great educational equalizer in which everyone has access to the information regardless of socio-economics.

By combining instruction, the framework, the standards, computers, graphics, text, video and the Internet, todays students can benefit from freely and easily obtained information.

Back to the top


Chapter Three

 

METHODOLOGY

 

One of the main objectives in this project was to figure out how to take digitized video and prepare them for streaming onto Web pages on the Internet. This was the most difficult and and labor intensive aspect in the creation of this project. Streaming video is the ability to have a video clip play on a Web page as it downloads to the individual user's computer. The file is compressed at a rate of 250:1. It does not download to the end user's hard drive as other Internet files do. With the VivoActive Video Now Player, the video actually plays on the server and the user simply views the video. This works much quicker than downloading a QuickTime video to play on a personal computer. It uses no hard drive space and plays instantaneously. It requires a plug-in which can be downloaded from the VivoActive Web site.

The challenge was in getting the videos converted to the correct format and embedded into a Web page that actually worked. After much research and experimentation, it was found that the VivoActive VideoNow Player was the best application to enable the outcome to be achieved. It had a cost of $30.00 and was purchased on the Internet. It required special HTML scripting and additional scripting on the server which hosts the Web site.

The process required a PowerMacintosh with a video in/out card which was purchased for $2400.00. The software used in processing and converting the video was Adobe Premiere and VivoActive Video Now. The video was captured by a JVC camcorder, purchased at a cost of $549.00. A 30 minute VHS-C video tape was used at each mission totaling $70.00. For each mission, the 35mm film totaled $40.00.

Each California mission was visited to shoot the video and also gain information about the individual missions. This was done in several trips. The first involved the Missions San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, San Miguel Arcangel, San Antonio de Padua and San Fernando Rey de Espana. The distance traveled during this first excursion was 662 miles. The expense was estimated at $800.00 for travel, hotel, supplies and food. The second trip was to visit the Missions Nuestra Senora de la Soledad, San Carlos de Borromeo de Carmelo, Santa Cruz, San Juan Bautista, Santa Clara, San Jose de Guadalupe, San Francisco de Asis, San Rafael and San Francisco Solano. The mileage for these missions totaled 1197 miles and the cost was estimated at $1400.00. The balance of the missions were visited in one day trips. Missions San Juan Capistrano, San Luis Rey de Francia and San Diego de Alcala amounted to 284 miles. Missions La Purisima Conception, Santa Ines, Santa Barbara and San Buenaventura equaled 410 miles. The cost of these last two trips was limited to gas and lunch, or about $60.00.

The total cost for this project including hardware, software, travel expenses and supplies came to $5,348.00 and ncluded a total distance traveled of 2,553 miles. Over 1,000 hours went into the development and creation of this project.

The first step in the project was decide on the platform in which the project was to be presented. There were many options, director, Authorware, HyperStudio, or the Internet. The emphasis of the project was that it should be used by as many people as possible, and kept updated regularly, not simply burned on a CD-ROM to be stored on a shelf somewhere. This led to the Internet, of which many of the above programs would also work when embedded into a web page. The real determining factor came with the video. The size of the QuickTime files made it time prohibitive to run on a Web page, keeping in mind attention span in a classroom of fourth graders waiting several minutes for each video to download, thus the concept of streaming video was adopted.

Web pages were designed for teachers, students, assessment, general history, and a page with links to other mission sites on the Internet. A template was made for the individual mission pages. Each page in this entire project has the same background and navigational tools. It was desired to have a familiar appearance to each page, so that the user would not get confused and soon actually expect where to find things on the page. Several different graphics taken from the mission videos were used in attempting a mission oriented background, such a the floor tile, bell tower, or adobe wall. After many adjustments, it still seemed to detract from the overall web design and appearance. As Dr. Viers, Professor at Cal Poly Pomona in the Masters of Educational Multimedia Department, once said "don't try to impress me with the use of the paint bucket". In other words, it is best to create a program in which the graphics and background do not take away from the information being presented.

The URL was sent to over 55 people including, students, teachers, administrators, professors, and parents. This group included all levels of technical ability from novice computers to HTML programmers, multimedia developers and advanced users. Responses and comments were e-mailed back and revisions made to the Web pages. An interactive form was added to the main page to aide the visitors in responding with comments.

The Assessment page received the most comments. Assessment is an intrigal part of any lesson and was an important aspect of this project. Assessment and reteaching became needed tools in the project design. Many of the respondents want more levels of the assessment. An Assessment page was developed based on the desired behavioral objectives in the project. Once the first level was successfully passed, the user was led into a second and then third and final level of the assessment process. It was anticipated that if the project is used as a graded lesson, then the first level would equal a grade of a C, the second level a B, and the third level correctly finished would be a grade of an A. An Assessment was added to each individual mission page as well as the main assessment page. JavaScript was used to create all of these assessment tools.

Each of the Web pages was tested repeatedly, redeveloped, retested and refined to be consistent in the format, user friendly and interactive. Once the individual Web pages were designed, tested, revised and finalized, it was time to begin adding the streaming video.

The video was shot and prepared using a VHS-C camcorder. Once the video was completed, the camcorder was connected to the Macintosh computer and converted in a digital format using Adobe Premiere. Each Premiere clip was then edited. The edited clips were merged together to make a complete video that would be of one specific area of the mission, such as the front, the inside of the church or the quadrangle. (These three clips are on every mission site to create an air of uniformity and consistency.) The completed digitized Premiere clip was opened using the VivoActive VideoNow converter and compressed into a VivoActive video clip. The finalized clip was embedded into the Web pages to be viewed on the Internet.

The webmaster in charge of the server which would run these pages was contacted and helped to program the server to run VivoActive video clips. The first web page was tested on several computers to be sure that it would in fact play across formats. It was tested on a Power Macintosh and a Dell PC using windows '95. Netscape and MicroSoft's Internet Explorer were tested on both of these platforms. It was found that the videos would play on a Power Macintosh only, not a 640XX Apple computer. It would not play on America On-line using their browser before 4.0. America On-line's beta program AOL 4.0 played the videos on both of these platforms. The videos would also not play using WebTV. The videos played well on tested PC's using Windows '95 and Windows '98 and all Apple Power Macintosh computers using Systems 7.6, 8.0 and 8.1. Windows '95 and Apple's PowerMacs account for over 95% of the current computer ownership and therefore was determined to be an appropriate platform to present this project.

The still pictures and graphics were scanned from 35mm photographs and created from the Premiere videos. These graphics were prepared using Adobe Photoshop.

The sounds on several of the Web pages were all created using SoundEdit and saved as a QuickTime file. All of the voices and music were written and produced by the creator of the project. Instruments used were an acoustic Spanish guitar, a wooden Indian flute and an electronic keyboard using the pipe organ setting. These sound files were placed into the web pages to automatically load, and play in the background creating a seemingly non-ending musical file. By looping the sounds to play over and over again, the sound continues to play until the user leaves the Web page, but is a small file that is downloaded only once.

All of the sound files, streaming video clips and graphics were scripted into each of the web pages. Each mission page was designed from the revised template ensuring uniformity and consistency. Each mission page was created to have a streaming video of the front of the individual mission on the main page and links to other pages containing streaming videos of the quadrangle and inside the church building. Other pages were developed when additional video clips were warranted. All of these additional video pages were designed identically to the main pages.

Informational text based on the research of each mission was added to every specific mission page. Links to other missions were also added so that the user could learn as much as possible about a mission from just one page.

Each of the over 115 Web pages and over 300 graphics, videos, sounds, and other files were loaded onto the San Bernardino County Schools' web server using the Fetch 3.0.1 software application. They were all tested to be sure of accuracy, spelling, active Internet links, and multimedia workability. There were a total of 121 visits to the main page of the site between the dates of July 30, and August 11, 1998 which included 58 unique hits. The information was based on a counter located on the main page of the Web site.

Back to the top


Chapter Four

 

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

In summarizing this project, it is felt that time taken in the beginning creating and testing the format and basic foundation of the Web site was imperative. Once the basics were established the development became very labor intensive, but knowing it would actually work made the work easier to complete.

This project was designed and developed to be an ongoing piece of work. It is one that will be updated and enhanced regularly. It is hoped that comments continue to come in helping to make this an even better project.

Student work will continue to be added to this site, as will multimedia lessons and presentations. The multimedia aspect of this project was envisioned as an interesting format for students to learn about the exciting history of the California Missions.

The study of the California Mission Chain is extremely important to students in California due to the fact that these 21 establishments led to the development of the entire state. These were the first permanent settlements in the state and the outcome is the major metropolitan areas of this state.

The recommendations are to keep this project updated and active. It was created to be freely distributed throughout the State of California to students, teachers and others interested in the Mission Chain. In order to keep that goal and objective, it is important that the web sites be maintained and not simply used as means to an end, that is the awarding of the Masters Degree in Education. The further development of the academic abilities of the students in the state is important to all. This project is intended to reach people in a unique fashion, personal and yet, anonymous.

The California Missions hold a very special place in the history and the hearts of those living in California.

Back to the top


Bibliography

 

Armento, B., Nash, G., Salter, C. & Wixson, K., (1991). Oh, California. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Boule, M. N., (1988). The missions: California's heritage (Books 1 - 21). Vashon, Washington: Merryant Publishing.

Bridis, T., (1998, April 16). Traffic on internet doubling every 100 days, feds say. Inland Valley Daily Bulletin, p. A6.

Burger, J., (1993). The desktop multimedia bible. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley

Chapin, J., Messick, R., Martelli, L., Graham, A., Cherryholmes, C. & Manson, G., (1984). California: People of a region. New York, New York: Webster Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Comer, D. E., (1995). The internet book. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Evans, T., (1995). 10 minute guide to HTML. Indianapolis, Indiana: Que Corporation.

Faber, G. & Lasagna, M., (1986). Whispers along the mission trail. Alamo, California: Magpie Publications.

Glaser, S., Lewis, E. (1998). Things to know, do and avoid before building a web page. PC Novice Guide to Building Websites, Vol. 6, Issue 6, p. 15.

LaChance, M. (1998). Things to know, do and avoid before building a web page. PC Novice Guide to Building Websites, Vol. 6, Issue 6, p. 52.

Lyngheim, L., (1990). The Indians and the California missions. Chatsworth, California: Langtry Publications.

Macromedia authorware version 3.5, exploring authorware (fundamentals 1) for windows® and macintosh®. (1996). San Francisco, California: Macromedia.

Macromedia lingo for director 5 authorized. (1997). Berkeley, California: Macromedia Press.

Margolin, M., (1978). The Ohlone way. Berkeley, California: Heyday Books.

McClelland, D., (1994). Macworld® Photoshop™ 3 bible, 2nd. edition.

Foster City, California: IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.

Negrino, T., Smith, D., (1998). JavaScript for the world wide web, 2nd edition. Berkeley, California: Peachpit Press

Persidsky, A., (1997). Director 6 for macintosh. Berkeley, California: Peachpit Press.

Pogue, D. & Schorr, J., (1997). Macworld mac secrets (4th ed.). Foster City, California: IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.

Rabinowitz, N. & Magee, S., (1996). Shockwave™ power solutions. Indianapolis, Indiana: New Riders Publishing.

Siegel, D., (1996). Creating killer web sites. Indianapolis, Indiana: Hayden Books.

Smith, P. & Ragan, T., (1993). Instructional design. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Stiggins, R., (1994). Student-centered classroom assessment. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Vaughan, P., & Vaughan, T., (1997). Director close-up: Interactivity & animation. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

VivoActive VideoNow™ user's guide, version 2.0. (1997). Waltham, Massachusetts: Vivo Software Inc.

Young, S., (1988). The missions of California. San Francisco, California: Chronicle Books.

California Department of Education's Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment Division, History - Social Science and Visual and Performing Arts Unit. (1990). The changing history - social science curriculum: A booklet for parents. [Brochure]. Ravitch, D.: Principal Writer.

History - Social Science Curriculum Framework and Criteria Committee. (1988). History - social science framework for California public schools. [Brochure]. Strazicich, M., editor.

California Planning Commission for Educational Technology. (1998). The California master plan for educational technology. [On-line]. Available: http://www.cde.ca.gov/ftpbranch/retdiv/ed_tech/programs/Master_Plan.html

State of California Academic Standards Commission. (1998). Purposed History/Social Science Standards. [Online]. Available: http://www.ca.gov/goldstandards/Drafts/HSS/HSSContents.html

The U.S. Department of Education, Office of Education Technology. (1988). [Online]. Available : http://www.ed.gov/Technology/index.html

Back to the top


To the Project

Any questions of comments? Send an e-mail to Rob Garretson

This page was last updated on January 13, 1999.

A Rob Garretson Production